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Essential Tools Module User's Guide

12.3 RWStringID

Many Rogue Wave clients have asked for a larger range of possible class identifiers for RWCollectable classes than is available using RWClassID. We did not change the meaning of RWClassID, in order to preserve backward compatibility for existing polymorphically persisted files, but we did add a new kind of class identifier, RWStringID.

An RWStringID is an identifier for RWCollectables. It is derived from RWCString, and may be manipulated by any of the const RWCString methods. The non-const methods have been hidden to prevent the disaster that could occur if the RWStringID of a class changed at run time.

You can associate an RWStringID with an RWCollectable class in one of two ways: pick the RWStringID for the class, or allow the library to automatically generate an RWStringID that is the same sequence of characters as the name of the class; for example, class MyColl : public RWCollectable would get the automatic RWStringID "MyColl".

You specify a class with a fixed RWClassID and generated RWStringID by using the macro RWDEFINE_COLLECTABLE as follows:

You specify a class with a fixed RWStringID and a generated RWClassID by using the new macro RWDEFINE_NAMED_COLLECTABLE as follows:

Using the examples above, you could write:

12.3.1 Duration of Identifiers

Providing polymorphic persistence between different executions of the same or different programs requires a permanent identifier for each class being persisted. Until now, the permanent identifier for any RWCollectable has been its RWClassID. For each class that derives from RWCollectable, the macro RWDEFINE_COLLECTABLE caused code to be generated that forever associated the class and its RWClassID. This identification has been retained, but in the current version of the Essential Tools Module you may choose the RWDEFINE_NAMED_COLLECTABLE macro, which will permanently link the chosen RWStringID with the class.

The addition of RWStringID identifiers will result in more identifiers, and more self-documenting RWCollectable identifiers, than were possible under the old restriction. To accommodate the new identifiers, a temporary RWClassID is now generated for each RWCollectable class that has an RWStringID specified by the developer. These RWClassIDs are built as needed during the run of an executable, and remain constant throughout that run. However, they may be generated in a different order on a different executable or during a different run, so they are not suitable for permanent storage.

12.3.2 Programming with RWStringIDs

RWCollectable now has a new regular member function, and two new static member functions. In order to maintain link compatibility with objects compiled against previous versions of the Essential Tools Module, none of these functions is virtual. The functions are therefore slightly less efficient than they would be if we broke link-compatibility.

The new regular member function is:

The new static member functions are:

RWFactory also includes the following new functions:

You can use RWCollectables that ship with the Essential Tools Module and RWCollectables that have been defined with fixed RWClassIDs exactly as in previous versions of the Essential Tools Module. For instance, you could use this common programming idiom:

However, when you use RWCollectables that have user-provided RWStringIDs, which implies any non-permanent ClassIDs, you must anticipate that the RWClassID may have different values during different runs of the executable. For these classes, there are two possible idioms to replace the one above:

12.3.3 Implementation Details of RWStringID

The next few sections cover implementation details of RWStringID. If you are curious about how we manage to provide virtual functionality without adding virtual methods, or if you are interested in issues of design, efficiency, and other specifics, these sections are for you. Automatic RWClassIDs

Automatic RWClassIDs are created in a systematic way from unused RWClassIDs in the range 0x9200 to 0xDAFF. There are 18,687 possible such RWClassIDs, so only extraordinary programs can possibly run out. However, we are used to dealing with extraordinary customers, so we feel we must warn you: you will not be able to build and use more than 18,687 different classes with automatically generated RWClassIDs in any one program. 16-bit DLLS will also accumulate automatic RWClassIDs while they are loaded in memory

Note that this implies nothing about the total number of objects of each class that you may have. That number is limited only by the requirements of your operating system and compiler. Of course, you also have access to the full set of RWClassIDs below 0x8000 -- that is, 32,767 more possible RWCollectables -- but they will not be automatically generated. You must specify them manually. Implementing Virtuals Via Statics

Since the virtual method isA() returns a "runtime unique" RWClassID, we can use this one virtual method to provide an index into a lookup table where various data or function pointers are stored. (This may remind you of C++ built-in vtables!) Since RWCollectables already depend on the existence of a single RWFactory, we chose to use that RWFactory instance to hold the lookup information.

The static method:

will attempt to look up id in the RWFactory instance. If it succeeds in finding an associated RWStringID, it will return it. Otherwise, it will return RWStringID("NoID").

The static method:

works in an analogous manner, looking in the RWFactory instance to see if there is an RWClassID associated with sid. If the method finds one, it returns it; otherwise, it returns RWClassID __RWUNKNOWN. Polymorphic Persistence

Polymorphic persistence of RWCollectables is not affected by the addition of the new class RWStringID. Existing files can still be read using newly compiled and linked executables, as long as the old RWClassIDs are unchanged. New classes that have RWStringIDs may be freely intermixed with old classes. The storage size of collectables that do not have permanent RWClassIDs will reflect their larger space requirements, but the storage size of other RWCollectables will be unaffected.

Note that collections containing RWCollectables with the same RWStringID have that RWStringID stored into a stream or file only once, just as multiple references to the same RWCollectable are only stored the first time they are seen. Efficiency

Since RWClassID is more efficient in both time and space than RWStringID, you may wish to continue using it wherever possible. RWStringIDs are useful:

RWStringIDs are generated for all RWCollectable classes that are compiled under the current version of the Essential Tools Module. This additional code generation has only minor impact on programs that do not use the RWStringIDs. The RWFactory will be larger, to hold lookups from RWClassID and RWStringID; and startup time will be very slightly longer, to accommodate the addition of the extra data to the RWFactory. Identification Collisions

While RWStringID can help alleviate identification collisions, the possibility of collisions between RWStringIDs of different classes still exists. Collisions can occur:

In some cases, collisions like these will be unimportant. Automatically generated RWClassIDs are guaranteed to be distinct from one another and from any legal user-provided RWClassID. The virtual isA() method, the stringID() method, and constructor lookup based on the RWClassID will all continue to work correctly.

There will be some situations, however, where collisions will cause difficulty. Polymorphic persistence of classes with user-chosen RWStringIDs that collide will not work correctly. In these cases, the data will not be recoverable, even though it is stored correctly. Similarly, user code that depends on distinguishing between classes based only on their RWStringIDs will fail.

As a developer, you can work to avoid such collisions. First of all, you should use an RWStringID which is unlikely to collide with any other. For instance, you might choose RWStringIDs that mimic the inheritance hierarchy of your class, or that imbed your name, your company's name, a creation time, or a file path such as found in revision control systems. And of course, you should always test your program to insure that the class actually associated with your RWStringID is the one you expected.

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