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Essential Tools Module User's Guide

7.3 Example

Here is an example that uses an RWGStack, a generic stack, to store a set of pointers to ints in a last-in, first-out (LIFO) stack. We will go through it line-by-line and explain what is happening:

Program Output:

Each line of the program is detailed below.

//1 This #include defines the preprocessor macro RWGStackdeclare(type). This macro is an elaborate and ugly-looking thing that continues for many lines and describes how a generic stack of objects of type type should behave. Mostly, the macro serves as a restricted interface to the underlying implementation.
//2 File <rw/rstream.h> is a special Rogue Wave header file that includes <iostream> and any other stream-related adjustments related to your compiler.
//3 This line invokes the macro declare, which is defined in the header file <generic.h> supplied with your compiler. If called with arguments declare(Class, type), it calls the macro Classdeclare with argument type. In this case, the macro RWGStackdeclare, defined in <rw/gstack.h>, will be called with argument int. In other words, the result of calling the declare(RWGStack, int) macro is to create a new class especially for your program. For all practical purposes, its name is RWGStack(int), a stack of pointers to int s.
//4 At this line an instance gs of the new class RWGStack(int) is created.
//5-//8  Four ints are created off the heap and inserted into the stack. After statement 8 executes, a pointer to the int 4 will be at the top of the stack, and a pointer to the int 1 at the bottom.
//9  The member function entries() of class RWGStack(int) is called to verify how many items are on the stack.
//10  A pointer to an int is declared and defined.
//11  The stack is popped until empty. The member function pop() will return and remove a pointer to the item on the top of the stack. If there are no more items on the stack it will return zero, causing the while loop to terminate.
//12  Each item is dereferenced and printed.

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